Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Six Dimensions of Health free essay sample

Unsuccessful attempt by members of the Faye Wright Neighborhood Association to restrict a strip club from opening near a park and schools validating the strength of the courts decision. Ridenbaugh Press wrote an article referencing the City of Nyssa case in 2006. The news article points out that Oregon has the most lax rules of any state in the union limiting adult sexually-oriented businesses but noting that Nyssa, the less striking of the two decisions, that the two cases came from two of the more culturally conservative places in the state. They conclude that there is a ontinuing attempt to regulate strip clubs but voters rejected it three times as of the time of this article. CNN did an article on Lawrence v. Texas in 2003. CNN pointed out that the ruling appeared to strike down most laws governing private sexual conduct, but laws governing marriage remained unaffected. They went on that the Supreme Court ruling establishes a benchmark in privacy that had not existed before and, according to Diane Haskel, the ruling, based on due process arguments rather than equal protection laws, would push out new areas in privacy. We will write a custom essay sample on Six Dimensions of Health or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This is going to arve out protection for private sexual behavior, Hassel said. As long as its between consenting adults, this ruling would appear to cover CNN refreshed the case details between John Geddes and Tyron Garner of Houston and that their arrest violated the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. It is also hailed as a great leap into protection of privacy in ones home. Andrew Cohen commented on Lawrence v. Texas, a CBS News legal analyst, and said that the Supreme Court has created a broad new legal rationale for future challenges by gay rights activists This s a major ruling that will change a lot of other laws down the road. He said that gays and others may be able to use the ruling to challenge a wide range of laws on the basis ofa right to privacy. [4] In my review of court cases and legalized prostitution I cannot leave out the wonderful State of Nevada. Nevada is one of only two U. S. states that allow some legal prostitution; in most of its counties, brothels are legalized and heavily regulated. In Rhode Island, the act of sex for money is not illegal, but street solicitation and operation ofa brothel are. However, as of July 2004, rostitution is illegal under state law in Clark County, where the City of Las Vegas sits, and under county or municipal law in Washoe County, where the City of Reno is located, Carson City, which is an independent city, and in Douglas County, and Lincoln County. Eureka County neither permits nor prohibits licensed brothels, and also has none. The other 11 Nevada counties permit licensed brothels in certain specified areas or cities. The precise licensing requirements vary by county. License fees for brothels range from an annual $100,000 in Storey County to an annual $200 n Lander County. Licensed prostitutes must be at least 21 years old, except in Storey County and Lyon County (where the minimum age is 18). [5] Nevada law requires that registered brothel prostitutes be checked monthly for HIV and weekly for several sexually transmitted diseases; furthermore, condoms are mandatory for all oral sex and sexual intercourse. If a customer becomes infected with HIV after a prostitute has tested positive for the virus, the brothel owners can be held liable. 6] Nevada has laws against engaging in prostitution outside of licensed brothels, against ncouraging others to become prostitutes, and against living off the proceeds of a prostitute. For many years, Nevada brothels were restricted from advertising their overturned in 2007. Prostitution is typically shunned upon in society and should be regulated like any other Job in America today. If the participants consent to sex and it pays the bills, puts food on the table and pays the rent, then prostitution is no different at earning money than any other blue collar Job. Legalizing prostitution would have healthy benefits and ensure safety for all those involved in the profession. For example, with the legalization of prostitution comes regulation. This means that prostitutes will be required to get medical checkups on a daily basis, which would help to decrease the spread of STDs and other communicable diseases. As a result, the quality of life for prostitutes will improve as well as the environment for his or her clients.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Social Media and How It Effects Interpersonal Relationships free essay sample

Social networking sites have increased their range of access by becoming known worldwide and and fall of popular social networks, their range of access, and how SNS’s became mainstream. (Boyd) Social media reduces the importance of interpersonal relationships by reducing the frequency of physical communications. Physical communications are an important part of modern culture because they help to develop social mannerisms and strengthen the ability to maintain social relationships. This generations youth have also begun to play a much larger part in their own learning experience. Today’s youth have grown up surrounded by advancing technology and that has changed the way they interact with each other and adults. They can have constant access to contact their friends via texting, and mobile phones as well in public ways like Facebook and Twitter. Youth have begun pressing into their interests by searching on Google and â€Å"lurking† in chat rooms. This has lead to a major increase in self-guided and peer-based learning (Ito). We will write a custom essay sample on Social Media and How It Effects Interpersonal Relationships or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This major transition to a media enveloped society has greatly affected youth so exponentially because they are permitted to have ‘round the clock access and are provided with devices to access any information they desire with no difficulty. The main issue that children and teens face when using social networking sites is what is appropriate to make public on social media networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Many things such as addresses and pictures are made public to anyone searching for them. Most websites allow privacy settings and usually enact them automatically for minors. A person may accept a â€Å"friend request† from someone they have never met and this poses a major problem for the protection of the integrity of today’s youth. A common problem that social networking sites face are the creation of fake profiles that are used to harass someone or to elicit illegal sexual activity. Creating an online profile that is fake to emotionally harm someone violates the terms and conditions set up by the social networking website. The creation of a fake online profile to verbally harm someone is thought by some people to violate the First Amendment because it is permitted to have freedom of speech but not to intentionally harm someone (Conan). Most people when signing up for a social media platform or other similar web based operating systems, are required to agree to the terms and conditions put in place by the site’s directors. This contract that the user agrees to asks the user â€Å"have you read and agree to the terms and conditions† and by ticking the box you state that you have. The anwser to this question is commonly referred to as â€Å"the biggest lie ever told†. When signing the User Agreement one agrees to grant the site permission to analyze their personal information for purposes such as ad-tracking. Companies hold the terms in conditions they have set in place to be â€Å"sacred† and this is because it helps to keep them removed from lawsuits. By doing this, the contract states, â€Å"you automatically grant the Company†¦. irrevocable, perpetual, non-exclusive, transferable, fully paid, worldwide license†¦. † (Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada). Conversely, if the user does not agree to the company’s terms and conditions then access will be denied to the user. What is put on the Internet is no longer intended to be private information. In today’s society impressing our peers no longer pertains to academic or athletic ability but by how many followers a person has on â€Å"Twitter†. This major switch from actual achievements to the ability to interest someone enough for them to click a button is incredibly drastic. The advances made in technology have made notable achievements less important by becoming a non-influential part of society. The advances that today’s youth have made in their ability to self-educate and their ability to rely on peer-based learning are mainly enacted because of the advancement in technology. The people that are making these esoteric discoveries are people that desire the need for uncommon knowledge. Young people are educating themselves in esoteric subjects that require the desire for inside knowledge. These people are delving into different specialized subjects that exceed common knowledge and personal knowledge exchange. This affects how the technologically enveloped teen interacts with his or her peers by creating an allusion to something typically unknown. The expansion of the teens knowledge is generally positive but, their knowledge has the capacity to remove them from the typical social norm and cause them to be viewed as outcasts. The common threat of heavy internet use is the fact that some users may become so heavily dependent that they will take on a form of isolationism and will completely cut off all physically personal relationships. These online relationships that spark can lead to marriage and dating, sites such as eHarmony. om and ChristianMingle. com, for example, make an interface that provides an easier way to do this. The phenomenon of lying on internet profiles to seem more appealing has caused a social upsurgance. However, lying on internet profiles was most common in men but women had almost similar results except in the weight category where a woman’s capacity to lie alm ost always exceeded a man’s (Boyd). The common practice of lying on the internet has made people suspicious of others and has increased the amount of security they place around their personal information. Safety is a major concern for social networking sites that wish to stay out of hot water. Safety should always be looked at as a positive thing but for that change to be made because there was an incident that required an increase in precautions is a negative thing. The amount of safety used on the Internet should not be increased just because something bad happened to force that change. The television show â€Å"Catfish† finds people that have relationships over social media sites and try to determine if they were actually the person they said the were. The majority of the time the person â€Å"catfishing† could be of a different ethnicity, age, height, weight , other physical charachteristics, and even gender. The dangers of people thinking that because they are protected behind a computer sceen they are emotionally invisible, not only that but not responsible for their actions is a question of our society’s morality. This example is exactly why social media should not replace physical interactions. The nuance between generations is not only noticeable in the actions performed by the younger generation but the predecessors as well. The undeniable fact that social media is now a global phenomen shows how greatly one web address can effect every single human being. Bibliography Blow, Charles M. A Profile of Online Profiles. 2008. http://blow. blogs. nytimes. com/2008/09/09/a-profile-of-online-profiles. Blog. April 2013 Boyd, Danah M. Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Nicole B. Ellison. Print. Conan, Neal. Is Creating a Fake Online Profile a Criminal Act. Kim Zetter, Andy Carvin. Radio Broadcast. Ito, Mizuko. â€Å"Geeking Out,† Living and Learning with New Media. igitalyouth. ischool. berkeley. edu/files/report/digitalyouth- WhitePaper. pdf Feb. 2009. Web April 2013. Ito, Mizuko. â€Å"Executive Summary,† Living and Learning with New Media. digitalyouth. ischool. berkeley. edu/files/report/digitalyouth-WhitePaper. pdf Feb. 2009. Web April 2013. Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. A Friend Of A Friend Knows You’re On Vacation. (http://blog. privcom. gc. ca), 2007. Web April 2013. Works Cited Boyd, Danah M. Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Nicole B. Ellison. Print. Conan, Neal. Is Creating a Fake Online Profile a Criminal Act. Kim Zetter, Andy Carvin. Radio Broadcast. Ito, Mizuko. â€Å"Geeking Out,† Living and Learning with New Media. digitalyouth. ischool. berkeley. edu/files/report/digitalyouth- WhitePaper. pdf Feb. 2009. Web April 2013. Ito, Mizuko. â€Å"Executive Summary,† Living and Learning with New Media. digitalyouth. ischool. berkeley. edu/files/report/digitalyouth- WhitePaper. pdf Feb. 2009. Web April 2013. Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. A Friend Of A Friend Knows You’re On Vacation. (http://blog. privcom. gc. ca), 2007. Web April 2013.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Patron and Matron

Patron and Matron Patron and Matron Patron and Matron By Mark Nichol As Latin scholars may recognize, patron and matron are cognate with the Latin words for â€Å"mother† and â€Å"father.† However, their senses, and those of inflectional forms of these words, extend beyond the immediately family. Patron, which means â€Å"sponsor† or â€Å"supporter,† ultimately derives from the Latin term pater, meaning â€Å"father,† but the senses of its intermediate form, patronus, are â€Å"bestower,† â€Å"lord,† and â€Å"master† as well as â€Å"model† and â€Å"pattern.† (Pattern, as a matter of fact, stems from patron, the identical French forebear of the English word.) Because of the diversity of definitions, a patron can be a wealthy philanthropist who supports an artistic endeavor or a social cause or a mere customer of a business establishment. The similar-looking term patroon, a Dutch variation on the French word, denotes in historical American English usage a landholder in Dutch colonial territories in what is now the northeastern United States. Patronage applies in either sense to the act of being a patron. Likewise, patronize has a dual meaning: In its positive connotation, it simply describes being a customer, but it also has the pejorative sense of â€Å"condescend,† or â€Å"look down on,† from the notion of a person of higher social status arrogantly regarding someone of supposedly inferior standing. Two words that contain the letter sequence seen in patron but are descended directly from pater are patronym (literally, â€Å"father’s name†) and patronymic (literally, â€Å"from the father’s name†); the latter is both a noun and an adjective. Matron, from the Latin word mater by way of matron, meaning â€Å"married woman,† also has modern senses that deviate from its familial origins: The word now signifies a woman with a mature demeanor and high social status, though the adjective matronly derogatorily suggests someone of a certain age and a certain bulk. In a wedding party, however, a married maid of honor is called a matron of honor regardless of age or size. Historically, a female supervisor in a public institution such as a prison or a school was called a matron, and in animal husbandry, a matron is the female equivalent of a stud. Matronym and matronymic are the female equivalents of patronym and patronymic. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Slang Terms for MoneyHyper and Hypo7 Sound Techniques for Effective Writing

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Problem Definition and Developing an Approach Report Assignment

Problem Definition and Developing an Approach Report - Assignment Example has managed to expand its business to more than 35 markets on five continents. The sales of Mary Kay products reached $2.5 billion in wholesale sales worldwide in 2009, and its global independent sales force exceeded 2 million (Mary Kay, n.d.). Mary Kay, Inc. is a private company, founded by Mary Kay and her son Richard R. Rogers and lead by the Mr. David B. Holl, Chief Executive Officer and President (Business Week 2011). The company offers a broad range of its products, including anti-aging, cleanser, moisturizer, lip and eye care, body care, sun care products as well as makeup products for eyes, lips, and cheeks, foundations, concealers, powders, compacts and applicators, and facial highlighting pens (Business Week, 2011). These products are produced at manufacturing plants in Dallas, Texas and China, and are sold in worldwide, including Europe, South and North America, Oceania, and Asia (Business Week, 2011). The key success of the company’s products promotion partially re lates to its staff comprised of sales force and Independent Beauty Consultants. The sales force members represent an integral part of the Mary Kay’s advertising strategy; they work either on door-to-door or in home demonstrations (Mary Kay, n.d.). Thus, the global network of Mary Kay’s consultants enables the company not only to sell its products worldwide but also provide personal support and give beauty advices to its customers. A. Environmental Analysis Political Qatar is politically stable country. Strengthening relations between Qatar and The United States help to set Pro-American climate, favorable for doing international business between these two countries (Wallace, n.d.) The legal environment of Qatar provides relatively favorable climate for foreign investors. The key benefits are referred to: no income tax or social security deductions payable on wages and salaries; corporate tax on foreign companies is 10%; no taxation is payable on exports; customs duties start at just 5% (KMD Consulting, n.d.). However, there are imposed import restrictions of cosmetics in Qatar (Country Codes and International Resources, n.d.). Economic Qatar has a strong economy, driven by revenues from oil and natural gas resources (Wallace, n.d.). This country has shown unprecedented economic growth rate during the last few years (Ministry of Business and Trade, n.d.). According to World Economic Forum of 2010, Qatar has topped other Arab and Middle East countries (Ministry of Business and Trade, n.d.). Due to its highly-efficient and well-performing institutional platforms, effective commodities and stable economic environment, Qatar has topped 139 countries included in the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) (Ministry of Business and Trade, n.d.). Moving to 17th rank out of 139 countries included in this report, Qatar hit a new record of 5.10 points comparing with its performance during the last few years (Ministry of Business and Trade, n.d.). The country is recognized as one of the highest living standard on earth (Ministry of Business and Trade, n.d.). From the economic perspective, Mary Kay Inc. has profound opportunities to expand its business in Qatar with great success. Socio-Cultural Even though Qatar women wear a covering, they also want to look pretty. This desire is expressed through applying of all modern technologies and innovations presented in cosmetology and surgery. The key issue, Mary Kay needs to take into

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Computer Literacy Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Computer Literacy - Coursework Example By means of comparison, it must also be understood that even though personal computing has taken on a life all its own throughout the past several decades, the uniformity of computing has not yet existed. This is of course due to the fact that rapid shifts in technology, growth in hardware, software, and the development of faster processors and lighter weight computing devices have slowly shifted the market away from tethered desktops and PCs towards the era of mobile computing. As a direct result of this shift, tablet computers, to include a litany of different manufacturers and operating systems, have begun to define the way in which personal computing and professional applications are run. As with any trend, the rate and extent to which businesses can integrate with the recent shifts in tablet use and employees with regards to business operations will have a direct effect with regards to the growth and relevance of whatever firm or entity pursue such a path. Accordingly, the follo wing analysis will engage the reader with an understanding of analyzing the benefits and risks of deploying tablet computers within organizations; specifically focusing upon issues related to productivity, accessibility, and compatibility. Is the further hope of this author that such a level of understanding will provide a more broad and nuanced level of appreciation for the way in which mobile computing is slowly but surely changing the face of the world with regards to the way in which business is conducted. Although no specific business will be held as a test case, the broad rationale for this is with regards to the fact that focusing upon any special business would necessarily reduce the applicability of the analysis with regards to any other firms might seek to utilize this information. Productivity Concerns: Firstly, it must be understood that the benefits of deploying tablet computers within organizations is necessarily the added benefit of providing rapidly accessible inform ation to the stakeholders in question (Baltzer, 2013). Even though it has thus far been determined that no specific industry will be analyzed, whether or not a given organization is performing a service industry or directly integrating products with the consumer, the ability to rapidly engage with information and presented, either in a sales or service type format, has a direct level of bearing with regards to the relevance and power of engagement that a given firm could display (Lowry, 2009). Rather than necessitated placing an individual in a queue while the customer service representative more stakeholder retrieves the information, the use of tablet computing would allow more rapid integration with this individual; thereby increasing representative would be able to handle a higher volume of inquiries and information on a daily basis (Choi et al., 2013). This of course has a direct level connotation with regards the overall volume of business and can be conducted in the overall le vel of profitability that the firm can seek to accrue during the course of normal business day. Accessibility Concerns: Further issue with regards to t

Monday, November 18, 2019

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatments Essay

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatments - Essay Example Ritalin, however, is not the most effective way to treat ADD and ADHD. This essay, then, will discuss what Ritalin is, what its side effects are, why it is still being used, and what alternatives parents have to medicating their children. According to, Ritalin is a Schedule II substance also called methylphenidate. It is not tested in children under the age of six. "In 1998, 26,800 prescriptions were issued for Ritalin. Last year, that figure had grown to 461,000" (Sale, 2008). There is much evidence that many children who take it are simply being over-medicated, since the medication shows no signs of helping them. Some parents, however, don't know what else to do when ADD or ADHD affects their children The side effects of Ritalin are well documented. They include skin rash, fever, anorexia, nausea, increased or decreased blood pressure, chest pain, abdominal pain, irregular heart rhythm, weight loss, anemia, and difficulty sleeping (, para. 2). Ritalin is also addictive, and easy to abuse (Rasminsky, 2008). Older students admitted that sometimes they take the prescriptions of other people, or more than they are prescribed, to "get loads done in a concentrated period of time" (Rasminsky, 2008). ... She said she only used once, but knows others who "can't stop after that first drug experience or that first A" (Rasminsky, 2008). Another admits, "You feel horrible coming down. All the reasons you're taking drugs are so amplified. It makes you depressed, so that's why you want to do more. It's a vicious cycle" (Rasminsky, 2008). Rasminsky is careful to point out that an electrocardiogram (EKG) is necessary when taking Ritalin because of the negative effect it has on the heart and the likelihood that sudden death could occur from cardiovascular death. Positive Effects There is no doubting that there might be some benefit in Ritalin for some child. A study was done of an 11-year-old boy. He'd been diagnosed with ADHD two years prior by his physician, but not given medication. During the study, he was given 20 mg of Ritalin on some mornings, but not on others. Every day he received a pill that looked exactly the same, so he had no way of know when he received the placebo and when he received the actual medicine. Someone administered the medicine other than the teachers or the observers, so the observations would not be biased. His behavior was monitored for the first four hours of the day. The study lasted three weeks. In the end, the findings showed that the student was much more focused, and well behaved on the days he received the 20 mg dosage of Ritalin (Smith et al.) This is no ace-in the-hole, however. This is one student. This student had an above average I.Q. There is no data to suggest how well Ritalin works on students of average intelligence. The student was only observed for 15 days and plenty of other studies show that Ritalin does seem to be effective in the beginning stages, but the faade quickly

Friday, November 15, 2019

Monte Carlo Simulation of Transmission Experiement

Monte Carlo Simulation of Transmission Experiement Fluid Densitometer Design based on Transmission and Scattering Gamma Ray Method using Monte Carlo Approach R.Wirawan, M. Djamal, A.Waris, G. Handayani,  H.J. Kim Abstract. Non-destructive testing is one method in the material testing that was applied and developed for many purposes in the industrial field. Gamma spectrometer is a one method that can be applied for the fluid densitometer. It was studied the potential of the use of transmission and scattering gamma ray measurements in order to evaluate the fluid density using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. Keywords: Non-destructive testing, scattering gamma, Monte Carlo, GEANT4. PACS: 29.40.-n Introduction Gamma-ray spectrum measurement is one of promising developing method in the non-destructive test application especially for an online measurement. It’s applicable for many industrial applications such as in medical, mining and oil industry, homeland security. The quality of the material can be differentiating from another one based on its density. In the application of gamma spectrometry, it’s influence the gamma ray energies spectrum detection result. Ball et al. (1998) have investigated the response of gamma backscatter to the spatial density in bulk sample [1]. In the fluid product analysis especially for the oil product density measurement, it’s a promising method for a densitometer. Hussein (2011) has developed investigation of the fluid flow in the pipe using gamma spectrometry [2]. Khorsandi and Feghhi have analyzed the transmission mode in densitometer application for the petroleum products monitoring applications [3]. The combination of transmission and scattering measurement modes are good approaching for a better analysis method in the detector response measurement due to the fluid density inside the pipe. For this purpose, simulation using Monte Carlo method can be conducted. Monte Carlo methods have capabilities in the implementation of the several of physics models and give the predicting result in the radiation physics application [4, 5]. In the present study we investigated the potential of the combination of these measurements using the Monte Carlo radiation transport from GEANT4 simulation toolkit. Theory Gamma ray energy spectrum characteristic that detected from its interaction with the material have information to identify the material characteristics involved. In the gamma ray spectrum measurement, there are two kinds of measurement type i.e. transmission and scattering. In the transmission, the gamma ray beams have an attenuated intensity because of energy absorption by material. The mass attenuation coefficient à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ­ of photon is a function of photon energy. The attenuated intensity was described by the Beer–Lambert formula: (1) where I0 incident gamma rays intensities, x is material absorption thickness, is mass absorption coeficient and its proportional to the total cross-section as follows , NA is the Avogadro’s number (6.021023 atom/mole) and A is atomic mass number of material[8]. For the scattering measurement, the detected photon beam is the result of deflecting with an electrons material. Scattering interactions that may occur is the single scattering or multiple scattering.The photon beam intensity has attenuation in the path before the scattering point interaction and in the path to the detector after the scattering point interaction. Figure 1 shows the single scattering interaction of photon with an element volume dV. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of photon single scattering interaction with an element volume in the material (adopted from Devlin and Taylor) [9]. According to the Compton scattering interaction, the photon with an energy Eà ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ § will be deflected with scattering angles à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ± to the origin direction after collision with an atomic electron. The scattered photon energy (EScatt) is expressed by the formula: (2) The intensity of detected gamma photon are influence of attenuation along primary photon, number of electron in element volume, differential cross-section, attenuation of scattered photon path and the solid angle subtended by detector at the element volume. For the single scattering interaction, the intensity of detected photon as depicted in the formula: (3) where S is the source activity (photon s-1), dV is element volume interaction, n is the electron density of the material, r1 and r2 are the length path of the primary photon before interaction and after scattering respectively. The density à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ² of the material is related to the electron density by (4) where NA is the Avogadro number, Z is the atomic number and M is the atomic mass. For the Compton interaction probabilities of the photon beam when it interact with an electron of the material was describe in differential form by Klein-Nishina formula, (5) where r0 is clasical electron radius (2,82 fm) and P parameter as function of incident photon energy and scattering angles à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ± as the formula (6) where constant [1,8]. Using the equation (4) and (5) to substitute parameter n and in the equation (3), we have the relation of intensity with the material density: (7) Solution of the equation (7) can be expressed in the simple form: (8) where A and B are constant. Method The simulation setup was developed based on the transmission configuration which conducted experimentally done by Khorsandi [3]. Four detectors are placed in two type positions where two detectors in the same side with source and two others in the opposite site as shown in Figure 2. The spatial distance between two detector d10 and d30 from the collimated source axis are about axis 27.5cm. For detector d20 is placed 20 cm far away from detector d10. Polyethylene pipe have an inner radius 5cm and thickness it’s about 2mm. Fluids under investigation inside the pipe (i.e. gasoline, gasoil and water) are assumed to be of uniform densityà ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ². A disk gamma ray source model is used for Cs-137 source is collimated by the cylinder shielding lead with 5cm thickness. The 3in. x 3in. NaI(Tl) detector model reconstruction in the simulation is adopted from references [6, 7]. Simulation based on GEANT4 Penelope Monte Carlo using 5.0 x 107 of the gamma source beamon. Figure 2 Schematic visualization of GEANT4 simulation for the transmission and scattering measurements setup. Result and Discussion To examine the response function of transmission and scattering measurement, firstly we need to consider the setup designed for the detector construction according to the c gamma source energy spectrum. The Cesium 137 source was placed in front of the Pb collimated NaI(Tl) 3 in. x 3 in. scintillation detector. Figure 3 shows the detector response function spectrum of GEANT4 simulation result comparing to the measurement result of the 15uCi gamma source. There are a good agreement for photopeak energy between the simulation result and the experiment result. Figure 3 Response function of Cs137 15uCi gamma source for 3 in. x 3 in NaI(Tl) detector. Based on detector construction setup, then we analyzes the detector response function of transmission and scattering measurement. Figure 4 shows the response function result of detector that placed in the four different positions for three different type of density fluid i.e. gasoline, gasoil and water. Figure 4 Response function of detector NaI(Tl) 3in. x 3in. from GEANT4 simulation of four different detector positions for gasoline, gasoil and water fluids in pipe. In the all energy spectrum distribution above, density of fluid matter give an effect to the gamma energies spectrum. The gasoline has a lower density number, but it shows a higher intensity (number of events) of gamma ray energy detected compare to the gasoil and water. The increased density of fluid will increased the number of electrons at the scattering point interaction, attenuation of primary and scattered photons. So, it’s give an effect to the decreasing intensity or peak energy spectrum that detected by the detector. For transmission mode as shown at d0 detector position, the main peak of Cesium 137 gamma source is in the 0.662 MeV. The normalize peak intensity shows that the GEANT4 simulations result have a good agreement to the Khorsandi (2011) experiment result as shown in Figure 5. This result shows that the model can be used for predicting the fluid densitometer experiment. Figure 5 Normalize intensity curve of transmission mode (d0 detector position) from simulation and experiment results. Here in the Figure 6(a), we have the same trends that the decreasing of the photopeak height due to the fluids density increase. Figure 6 Gaussian height curves of photopeak at four different detector positions. Based on the intensity as density function equation (8), the proposed constant A and B for the curve fit in the Figure 6(a) are depicted in Table 1. Table 1. Curve fitting constant Based on the B constant of the four normalize count rates curves, d20 detector position have a higher decreasing slope than the others. In other side, the number of entry photon to the detector d20 position is too small, so for this configuration its need the higher activity source. Conclusions In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation of transmission and scattering measurements of gamma ray for the fluid densitometer was carried out using GEANT4. Due to an increase in the fluid density in the pipe, the peak heights of detected gamma ray intensity have decreased. The simulations for the gamma ray transmission investigation were conducted according to the experiment setup give the best fit curve result. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges the financial support of Directorate General of Indonesian Higher Education through the Sandwich-Like (PKPI) Program 2013. Refference [1] A.J. Ball, C.J. Solomon, J.C. Zarnecki, The response of gamma backscatter density gauges to spatial inhomogeneity An extension of the single scattering model, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 140 (1998) 449-462. [2] Nagy M. Hussein, Investigation of Fluid Flow using Gamma Spectroscopy, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 80 2011 1169-1174. [3] M. Khorsandi, S.A.H. Feghhi, Design and reconstruction of a prototype gamma-ray densitometer for petroleum products monitoring applications, Measurement 44 (2011) 1512-1515. [4] U.A. Tarim, E.N. Ozmutlu, O. Gurler, S. Yalcin, The Effect of the Housing Material on NaI(Tl) detector response function, J. Radioanalytical and Nucl. Chem. DOI 10.1007/s10967-012-1716-z (2012) 1-5. [5] A.F. Bielajew, Fundamentals of the Monte Carlo method for neutral and charged particle transport, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 2001, pp.1-10. [6] Hu-Xia Shi, Bo-Xian Chen, Ti-Zhu Li, Di Yun: Precise Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray response functions for an NaI(Tl) detector, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 57 (2002) 517–524. [7] Abd-Elzaher, M., Badawi, M. S, El-Khatib, A. and Thabet, A. A.: Determination of Full Energy Peak Efficiency of NaI(Tl) Detector Depending on Efficiency Transfer Principle for Conversion From Experimental Values, World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, (2012), pp. 65-72. [8] Knoll, G.F., Radiation Detection and Measurement (Second Edition), Wiley and Sons, New York, 1989. [9] G. Devlin, D. Taylor: The Spatial Response Pattern of Gamma Backscatter Density Gauges, Journal of Soil Sciences Vol. 21 No. 2 (1970), pp. 297-303.